# NECO Syllabus For Physics 2020/2021

In this article, we will be sharing the full NECO Syllabus for physics. This is specifically for all candidates that will be taking Physics during the 20202021 NECO Examination. Enjoy your read!

## NECO Syllabus For Physics

Concepts of Matter

Simple Structure of Matter should be discussed. Three physics states of matter, namely solid, liquid and gas should be treated. Evidence of the particle nature of matter e.g. Brownian motion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter. Use of the theory to explain; states of matter (solid, liquid and gas), pressure in a gas, evaporation and boiling; cohesion, adhesion, capillarity. Crystalline and amorphous substances to be compared (Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g. face centred, body centred

Fundamental and derived quantities and units (a) Fundamental quantities and units

(b) Derived quantities and units

Length, mass, time, electric current luminous intensity, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance as examples of fundamental quantities and m, kg, s, A, cd, K and mol as their respective units.

Volume, density and speed as derived quantities and m3, kgm-3 and ms-1 as their respective units

Position, distance and displacement.

(a) Concept of position as a location of point-rectangular coordinates. (b) Measurement of distance

(c) Concept of direction as a way of locating a point –bearing (d) Distinction between distance and displacement

Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Z axes should be mentioned.

Use of string, metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracy should be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance.

Use of compass and a protractor.

Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed

Mass and weight

Distinction between mass and weight

Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balance to measure mass and spring balance to measure weight. Mention should be made of electronic/digital balance.

Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N) as unit of weight

Time

(a) Concept of time as interval between physical events

(b) Measurement of time

The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-timer, pendulum and stopwatch/clock.

Second(s) as unit of time

Fluid at rest

(a) Volume, density and relative density

(b) Pressure in fluids

(c) Equilibrium of bodies

(i) Archimedes’ principle

(ii) Law of flotation

Experimental determination for solids and liquids.

Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s principle, application of principle to hydraulic press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure on the depth of a point below a liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer, manometer, siphon, syringe and pump. Determination of the relative density of liquids with U-tube and Hare’s apparatus.

Identification of the forces acting on a body partially or completely immersed in a fluid.

Use of the principle to determine the relative densities of solids and liquids.

Establishing the conditions for a body to float in a fluid. Applications in hydrometer, balloons, boats, ships, submarines etc

Motion

(a) Types of motion: Random, rectilinear, translational, Rotational, circular, orbital, spin, Oscillatory.
(b) Relative motion
(c) Cause of motion

(d) Types of force: (i) Contact force (ii) Non-contact force(field force)

(e) Solid friction

Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of scalars.

Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration as examples of vectors.

Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces.

Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically

(f) Viscosity (friction in fluids)

(g) Simple ideas of circular motion

Only qualitative treatment is required. Illustration should be given for the various types of motion.

Numerical problems on co-linear motion may be set.

Force as cause of motion.

Push and pull These are field forces namely; electric and magnetic attractions and repulsions; gravitational pull.

Frictional force between two stationary bodies (static) and between two bodies in relative motion (dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and their determinations. Advantages of friction e.g. in locomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantages of friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear and tear of machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. use of ball bearings, rollers, streamlining and lubrication.

Definition and effects. Simple explanation as extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and its application in lubrication should be treated qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its determination.

Experiments with a string tied to a stone at one end and whirled around should be carried out to

(i) demonstrate motion in a Vertical/horizontal circle.

Speed and velocity

(a) Concept of speed as change of distance with time

(b) Concept of velocity as change of displacement with time

(c) Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity

(d) Distance/displacement-time graph

Metre per second (ms-1) as unit of speed/velocity.

Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as ∆ s ∆t.

Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity from distance/displacement-time graph and by calculation.

Rectilinear acceleration

(a) Concept of Acceleration/deceleration as increase/decrease in velocity with time.

(b) Uniform/non-uniform acceleration

(c) Velocity-time graph

(d) Equations of motion with constant acceleration;

Motion under gravity as a special case.

Unit of acceleration as ms-2

Ticker timer or similar devices should be used to determine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as ∆ v ∆t .

Determination of acceleration and displacement from velocity-time graph

Use of equations to solve numerical problems

Scalars and vectors

(a) Concept of scalars as physical quantities with magnitude and no direction

(b) Concept of vectors as physical quantities with both magnitude and direction.

(c) Vector representation

(e) Resolution of vectors

(f) Resultant velocity using vector representation.

Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of scalars.

Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration as examples of vectors.

Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces.

Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically

Equilibrium of forces

(a) Principle of moments

(b) Conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.

(c) Centre of gravity and stability

Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g. turning of water tap, corkscrew and steering wheel.)

Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces. Treatment should include resolution of forces into two perpendicular directions and composition of forces Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces.

Should be treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.

Simple harmonic motion

(a) Illustration, explanation and definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M

(b) Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.

(c) Period, frequency and amplitude of a body executing S.H.M.

(d) Energy of S.H.M

(e) Forced vibration and resonance

Use of a loaded test-tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring and bifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.

Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angular accelerations. Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simple pendulum and helical spring. The theory of the principles should be treated but derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not required

Simple problems may be set on simple harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspension and loaded test-tube is not required.

Newton’s laws of motion:

(a) First Law: Inertia of rest and inertia of motion

(b) Second Law: Force, acceleration, momentum and impulse

(c) Third Law: Action and reaction

Distinction between inertia mass and weight

Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to determine the acceleration of a falling body and the relationship when the accelerating force is constant.

Linear momentum and its conservation. Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line.

Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsions.

Energy: (a) Forms of energy

(b) World energy resources

(c) Conservation of energy.

Examples of various forms of energy should be mentioned e.g. mechanical (potential and kinetic), heat chemical, electrical, light, sound, nuclear.

Renewable (e.g. solar, wind, tides, hydro, ocean waves) and non-renewable (e.g. petroleum, coal, nuclear, biomass) sources of energy should be discussed briefly.

Statement of the principle of conservation of energy and its use in explaining energy transformations

Work, Energy and Power

(a) Concept of work as a measure of energy transfer

(b) Concept of energy as capability to do work

(c) Work done in a gravitational field.

(d) Types of mechanical energy

(i) Potential energy (P.E.)

(ii) Kinetic energy (K.E)

(e) Conservation of mechanical energy.

(f) Concept of power as time rate of doing work.

(g) Application of mechanical energymachines. Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears

Unit of energy as the joule (J)

Unit of energy as the joule (J) while unit of electrical consumption is KWh.

Work done in lifting a body and by falling bodies

Derivation of P.E and K.E are expected to be known. Identification of types of energy possessed by a body under given conditions.

Verification of the principle

Unit of power as the watt (W)

The force ratio (F.R), mechanical advantage (M.A), velocity ratio (V.R) and efficiency of each machine should be treated. Identification of simple machines that make up a given complicated machine e.g. bicycle. Effects of friction on Machines. Reduction of friction in machines

Heat Energy

(a) Temperature and its measurement

(b) Effects of heat on matter e.g

(i) Rise in temperature (ii) Change of phase state (iii) Expansion (iv) Change of resistance

(c) Thermal expansion – Linear, area and volume expansivities
Unit

(d) Heat transfer – Condition, convention and radiation.

(e) The gas laws-Boyle’s law Charles’ law, pressure law and general gas law

(f) Measurement of heat energy: (i) Concept of heat capacity (ii) Specific heat capacity.

(g) Latent heat (i) Concept of latent heat

(ii) Melting point and boiling Point

(iii) Specific latent heat of fusion and of vaporization

(h) Evaporation and boiling

(i) Vapour and vapour pressure

(j) Humidity, relative humidity and dew point

(k) Humidity and the weather

Concept of temperature as degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Construction and graduation of a simple thermometer. Properties of thermometric liquids. The following thermometer, should be treated: Constant – volume gas thermometer, resistance thermometer, thermocouple, liquid-in-glass thermometer including maximum and minimum thermometer and clinical thermometer, pyrometer should be mentioned. Celsius and Absolute scales of temperature. Kelvin and degree Celsius as units of temperature.

Use of the Kinetic theory to explain effects of heat.

Mention should be made of the following effects: Change of colour Thermionic emission Change in chemical properties

Qualitative and quantitative treatment Consequences and application of expansions. Expansion in buildings and bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostat, over-head cables causing sagging nd in railway lines causing buckling. Real and apparent expansion of liquids. Anomalous expansion of water.

Per Kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.

Use of the kinetic theory to explain the modes of heat transfer. Simple experimental illustrations. Treatment should include the explanation of land and sea breezes, ventilation and application s in cooling devices. The vacuum flask.

The laws should be verified using simple apparatus. Use of the kinetic theory to explain the laws. Simple problems may be set. Mention should be made of the operation of safety air bags in vehicles.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids. Land and sea breezes related to the specific heat capacity of water and land, Jkg-1 K-1 as unit of specific heat capacity.

Explanation and types of latent heat.

Determination of the melting point of solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Effects of impurities and pressure on melting and boiling points. Application in pressure cooker.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific latent heats of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam. Applications in refrigerators and air conditioners.

Jkg-1 as unit of specific latent heat

Effect of temperature, humidity, surface area and draught on evaporation to be discussed.

Explanation of vapour and vapour pressure. Demonstration of vapour pressure using simple experiments. Saturated vapour pressure and its relation to boiling.

Measurement of dew point and relative humidity. Estimation of humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry-bulb hygrometer.

Formation of dew, fog and rain

Production and propagation of waves

(a) Production and propagation of mechanical waves

(b) Pulsating system: Energy transmitted with definite speed, frequency and wavelength.

(c) Waveform

(d) Mathematical relationship connecting frequency (f), wavelength(), period (T) and velocity (v)

Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generate mechanical waves

Use of ripple tank to show water waves and to demonstrate energy propagation by waves. Hertz(Hz) as unit of frequency.

Description and graphical representation. Amplitude, wave length, frequency and period. Sound and light as wave phenomena. V= f and T = simple problems may be set

Types of waves

(a) Transverse and longitudinal

(b) Mathematical representation of wave motion

Examples to be given

Equation y = A sin (wt±

) to be explained Questions on phase difference will not be set

19. Properties of waves: Reflection, refraction, diffraction, Interference, superposition of progressive waves producing standing stationary waves

Ripple tank should be extensively used to demonstrate these properties with plane and circular waves. Explanation of the properties

Light waves

(a) Sources of light

(b) Rectilinear propagation of light

(c) Reflection of light at plane surface: plane mirror

(d) Reflection of light at curved surfaces: concave and convex mirrors

(e) Refraction of light at plane surfaces: rectangular gla

(g) Application of lenses in optical instruments.

(h) Dispersion of white light by a triangular glass prism.

Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-luminous bodies

ss prism (block) and triangular prism.

(f) Refraction of light at curved

surfaces: Converging and diverging lenses

Formation of Shadows and eclipse. Pinhole camera. Simple numerical problems may be set.

Regular and irregular reflections. Verification of laws of reflection. Formation of images. Inclined plane mirrors. Rotation of mirrors. Applications in periscope, sextant and kaleidoscope.

Laws of reflection. Formation of images. Characteristics of images. Use of mirror formulae:
+ = and magnification m = to solve numerical problems. (Derivation of formulae is not required)

Experimental determination of the focal length of concave mirror. Applications in searchlight, parabolic and driving mirrors, car headlamps etc.

Laws of refraction. Formation of images, real and Apparent depths. Critical angle and total internal reflection. Lateral displacement and angle of deviation. Use of minimum deviation equation:

Sin (A + Dm) = 2

Sin A/2 (Derivation of the formula is not required) Applications: periscope, prism binoculars, optical fibres. The mirage.

Formation of images. Use of lens formulae + = and magnification tp solve numerical problems

(derivation of the formulae not required). Experimental determination of the focal length of converging lens. Power of lens in dioptres (D)

Simple camera, the human eye, film projector, simple and compound microscopes, terrestrial and astronomical telescopes. Angular magnification. Prism binoculars. The structure and function of the camera and the human eye should be compared. Defects of the human eye and their corrections.

Production of pure spectrum of a white light. Recombination of the components of the spectrum. Colours of objects. Mixing coloured lights

Electromagnetic waves: Types of radiation in electromagnetic Spectrum

Elementary description and uses of various types of radiation: Radio, infrared, visible light, ultra-violet, X-rays, gamma rays.

22. Sound Waves

(a) Sources of sound (b) Transmission of sound waves

(c) Speed of sound in solid, liquid and air

(d) Echoes and reverberation

(e) Noise and music (f) Characteristics of sound

(g) Vibration in strings

(h) Forced vibration

(i) Resonance (ii) Harmonies and overtones

(i) Vibration of air in pipe – open and closed pipes

Experiment to show that a material medium is required.

To be compared. Dependence of velocity of sound on temperature and pressure to be considered.

Use of echoes in mineral exploration, and determination of ocean depth. Thunder and multiple reflections in a large room as examples of reverberation.

Pitch, loudness and quality

Use of resonance boxes and sonometer to illustrate forced vibration.

Use of overtones to explain the quality of a musical note. Applications in percussion instruments: e.g drum, bell, cymbals, xylophone.

Measurement of velocity of sound in air or frequency of tuning fork using the resonance tube. Use of the relationship v = in solving numerical problems. End correction is expected to be mentioned. Applications in wind instruments e.g. organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet and saxophone

Fields

Description property of fields.

(a) Concept of fields: Gravitational, electric and Magnetic

(b) Properties of a force field

Use of compass needle and iron filings to show magnetic field lines

Gravitational field

(a) Acceleration due to gravity, (g)

(b) Gravitational force between two masses:

Newton’s law of gravitation

(c) Gravitational potential and escape velocity

G as gravitational field intensity should be mentioned, g = F/m.

Masses include protons, electrons and planets

Universal gravitational constant (G) Relationship between ‘G’ and ‘g’

Calculation of the escape velocity of a rocket from the earth’s gravitational field

Electric Field

(1) Electrostatics (a) Production of electric charges

(b) Types of distribution of charges

(c) Storage of charges

(d) Electric lines of force

(e) Electric force between point charges: Coulomb’s law

(f) Concepts of electric field, electric field intensity (potential gradient) and electric potential.

(g) Capacitance- Definition, arrangement and application

Production by friction, induction and contact.

A simple electroscope should be used to detect and compare charges on differently-shaped bodies.

Application in light conductors.

Determination, properties and field patterns of charges

Permittivity of a medium.

Calculation of electric field intensity and electric potential of simple systems.

Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The farad (F) as unit of capacitance. Capacitors in series and in parallel. Energy stored in a charged capacitor. Uses of capacitors: e.g. in radio and Television. (Derivation of formulae for capacitance is not required)

(2) Current electricity (a) Production of electric current from primary and secondary cells

(b) Potential difference and electric current

(c) Electric circuit

(d) Electric conduction through materials

(e) Electric energy and power

(f) Shunt and multiplier

(g) Resistivity and Conductivity

(h) Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell

Simple cell and its defects. Daniel cell, Lechanché cell (wet and dry). Lead-acid accumulator. Alkalne-cadium cell. E.m.f. of a cell, the volt (V) as unit of e.m.f.

Ohm’s law and resistance. Verification of Ohm’s law. The volt (V), ampere (A) and ohm (Ω) as units of p.d., current and reisistance respectively.

Series and parallel arrangement of cells and resistors. Lost volt and internal resistance of batteries.

Ohmic and non ohmic conductors. Examples of ohmic conductors are metals, non-ohmic conductors are semiconductors.

Quantitative definition of electrical energy and power. Heating effect of an electric current and its application. Conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy e.g. electric motors. Conversion of solar energy to electrical and heat energies: e.g. solar cells, solar heaters

Use in conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a material should be treated. Simple problems may be set.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter, voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridge and metre bridge

Magnetic field

(a) Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.

(b) Magnetization and demagnetization.

(c) Concept of magnetic field

(d) Magnetic force on: (i) a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field; (ii) between two parallel current-carrying conductors (e) Use of electromagnets

(f) The earth’s magnetic field

(g) Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and alloys.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of iron and steel as magnetic materials.

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density. Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current-carrying conductor and a solenoid. Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric motor and moving-coil galvanometer.

Examples in electric bell, telephone earpiece etc.

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

Solving simple problems involving the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field, using F=qvB sin

Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

(i) Shunt and multiplier

(j) Resistivity and Conductivity

(k) Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.

Identifying the directions of current, magnetic field and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s lefthand rule

Use in conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a material should be treated. Simple problems may be set.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter, voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridge and metre bridge

Magnetic field

(h) Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.

(i) Magnetization and demagnetization.

(j) Concept of magnetic field

(k) Magnetic force on: (i) a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field; (ii) between two parallel current-carrying conductors (l) Use of electromagnets

(m) The earth’s magnetic field

(n) Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and alloys.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of iron and steel as magnetic materials.

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density. Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current-carrying conductor and a solenoid. Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric motor and moving-coil galvanometer.

Examples in electric bell, telephone earpiece etc.

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

Solving simple problems involving the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field, using F=qvB sin

Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

(b) Electromagnetic induction

Faraday’s law ,Lenz’s law and motor-generator effect

(c) Inductance

(d) Eddy currents

(e) Power transmission and distribution

Identifying the directions of current, magnetic field and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s lefthand rule

Applications: Generator (d.c.and a.c.) induction coil and transformer. The principles underlying the production of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Equation E = Eo sinwt should be explained.

Application in radio,T.V., transformer. (Derivation of formula is not required).

A method of reducing eddy current losses should be treated. Applications in induction furnace, speedometer, etc.

Reduction of power losses in high-tension transmission lines. Household wiring system should be discussed.

Simple a.c. circuits

(a) Graphical representation of e.m.f and current in an a.c. circult.

(b) Peak and r..m.s. values

(c) Series circuit containing resistor, inductor and capacitor

(d) Reactance and impedance

(e) Vector diagrams

(f) Resonance in an a.c, circuit

(g) Power in an a.c. circuit

Graphs of equation I – Io sin wt and\E = Eo sinwt should be treated.

Phase relationship between voltage and current in the circuit elements; resistor, inductor and capacitor

Simple calculations involving a.c. circuit. (Derivation of formulae is not required.)

XL and Xc should be treated. Simple numerical problems may be set.

Applications in tuning of radio and T.V. should be discussed

Atomic And Nuclear Physics

Structure of the atom

(a) Models of the atom

(b) Energy quantization

(c) Photoelectric effect

(d) Thermionic emission

(e) X-rays

Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and electroncloud (wave-mechanical) models should be discussed qualitatively. Limitations of each model. Quantization of angular momentum (Bohr)

Energy levels in the atom. Colour and light frequency. Treatment should include the following: Frank-Hertz experiment, Line spectra from hot bodies, absorption spectra and spectra of discharge lamps.

Explanation of photoelectric effect. Dual nature of light. Work function and threshold frequency. Einstein’s photoelectric equation and its explanation. Application in T.V., camera, etc. Simple problems may be set.

Explanation and applications

Production of X-rays and structure of X-ray tube. Types, characteristics, properties, uses and hazards of X-rays. Safety precautions

Structure of the nucleus

(a) Composition of the nucleus

(a) Radioactivity – Natural and artificial

(b) Nuclear reactions — Fusion and Fission

Radioactive elements, radioactive emissions (,β,)and their properties and uses. Detection of radiations by G – M counter, photographic plates, etc. should be mentioned. Radioactive decay, half-life and decay constant. Transformation of elements. Applications of radioactivity in agriculture, medicine, industry, archaeology, etc.

Distinction between fusion and fission. Binding energy, mass defect and energy equation:

E= ∆ mc2

Nuclear reactors. Atomic bomb. Radiation hazards and safety precautions. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions

(a) Electron diffraction (b) Duality of matter

Simple illustration of the dual nature of light

Harmonised Topics For Short Structured Questions For All Member Countries

Derived quantities and dimensional Analysis

Fundamental quantities and units e.g. Length, mass, time, electric current, luminous intensity e.t.c., m, kg,s, A, cd, e.t.c. as their respective units Derived quantities and units. e.g. volume, density, speed e.t.c. m3, kgm-3, ms-1 e.t.c. as their respective unit Explanation of dimensions in terms of fundamental and derived quantities. Uses of dimensions – to verity dimensional correctness of a given equation – to derive the relationship between quantities – to obtain derived units.

Projectile motion concept of projectiles as an object thrown/release into space

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc. Simple problems involving range, maximum height and time of flight may be set.

Satellites and rockets

Meaning of a satellite comparison of natural and artificial satellites parking orbits, Geostationary satellites and period of revolution and speed of a satellite. Uses of satellites and rockets

Elastic Properties of solid: Hooke’s law, Young’s modules and work done in springs and string

Thermal conductivity: Solar energy collector and Black body Radiation.

Behaviour of elastic materials under stress – features of load – extension graph Simple calculations on Hook’s law and Young’s modulus.

Solar energy; solar panel for heat energy supply. Explanation of a blackbody. Variation of intensity of black body radiation with wavelength at different temperatures

Fibre Optics

Explanation of concept of fibre optics. Principle of transmission of light through an optical fibre Applications of fibre optics e.g. local area Networks (LAN) medicine, rensing devices, carrying laser beams e.t.c

Introduction to LASER

Meaning of LASER Types of LASERS (Solid state, gas, liquid and semi-conductor LASERS Application of LASERS (in Scientific research, communication, medicine military technology, Holograms e.t.c. Dangers involved in using LASERS

Magnetic materials

Uses of magnets and ferromagnetic materials

Electrical Conduction through materials [Electronic]

Distinction between conductors, semiconductors and insulators in term of band theory. Semi conductor materials (silicon and germanium) Meaning of intrinsic semiconductors. (Example of materials silicon and germanium). Charge carriers Doping production of p-type and n-type extrinsic semi conductors. Junction diode – forward and reverse biasing, voltage characteristics. Uses of diodes Half and full wave rectification

Structure of matter

Use of kinetic theory to explain diffusion.

Electron diffraction Duality of matter Simple illustrations of dual nature of light.

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